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  • Sowing Method: Direct
  • Plant Type: Flower

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Gardening Tips

Bachelor’s Button Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-12”
Days to Germination:7-14 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Centaurea cyanus. It is best to direct-sow Bachelor’s Buttons in well-draining, loamy soil in full sun as soon as the ground can be worked. Plant 1⁄2" deep and tamp down well since they require darkness for optimal germination. Keep uniformly moist until the seedlings emerge, up to 2 weeks after sowing. Or sow indoors 4 weeks before planting outside, in a good seed-starting medium at about 60° to 70°F. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Prior to transplanting, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. Thin or transplant 6" to 12" apart in the garden. Weed and keep well-watered until established. Drought tolerant, water moderately once established. Summer flowering. Height: 3'.

Our Pollinators are in Peril

Shade Tolerance
Bells of Ireland Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:0”
Seed Spacing:3”-4”
Plant Spacing:10”-12”
Days to Germination:25-35 days
Germination Temperature:55°-65°F

Moluccella laevis, aka Shellflower. Direct-sow Bells of Ireland 2 weeks before the last frost date. Prior to sowing, soak the seeds overnight in lukewarm water to assist germination. Sow in a rich, well-draining garden bed in full to partial sunlight. Water regularly and feed as needed with manure tea, kelp or fish emulsion. Or start transplants indoors 6 to 8 weeks before setting out around the last frost date. Sow seeds on top of sterile starter mix, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light is needed for germination. Provide good air circulation, strong light and even moisture. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days before transplanting them out 12" apart. Readily self-sowing, this prized 1570 heirloom produces 2' to 3' spires of pale to emerald green, 1" funnel-shaped bells enclosing tiny, fragrant white flowers. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.
Blue Flax Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:4”-6”
Plant Spacing:10”-12”
Days to Germination:20-25 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Linum perenne lewisii. Blue Flax should be direct-sown outside as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. Or, as you plant fall flower bulbs, direct-sow it for spring germination. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Sow seeds on top of soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Flax may also be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. Naturalizing Blue Flax is loved for its vivid, cornflower-blue, saucer-shaped flowers. It may bloom the first year if started early enough in the spring. Summer flowering. Height: 12" to 24".
Browallia Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:8”
Days to Germination: 14-21 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Browallia americana. Browallia is summer’s version of Forget-Me-Nots: masses of clean, deep green foliage topped with oodles of amethystblue flowers. It blooms from June through September and even self-sows! Seeds are most successfully started outdoors, directly in the garden after all danger of frost has passed in spring, in full sun to partial shade. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and keep them moist until germination. Thin seedlings to 8" apart. Browallia makes a wonderful filler for summer borders, and never seems to stop blooming. It prefers a bit of afternoon shade in warmer climates, and does not require dead heading. While it is technically a perennial in warmer climates, it is generally grown as an annual in North American gardens. Annual. Summer flowering. Height: 16" to 24".

Shade Tolerance
Calendula Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:70°F

Calendula officianalis. This decorative edible may be started outdoors as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. It prefers full sunlight and a fertile, loamy and well-draining soil. Plant the seeds 1⁄2" deep and firm well, since they require darkness for optimal germination. Keep uniformly moist until the seedlings emerge, about 1 to 2 weeks after sowing. To raise as transplants, sow the seeds 6 to 8 weeks prior to the last frost date in a good seedstarting medium, provide even moisture and a consistent 70°F temperature until the seedlings emerge in about 2 weeks. Once established, thin plants to 2" to 3" apart and grow on. Prior to transplanting when 3" tall, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. Space plants 12" apart in the garden. Summer/fall-flowering. Height: 24".

Our Pollinators are in Peril

Shade Tolerance
Cardinal Climber Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-8”
Days to Germination:5-10 days
Germination Temperature:65°-85°F

Ipomoea quamoclit. A spectacular climbing annual, this beloved heirloom will scramble up any type of supportive structure for a profusion of little, trumpet-shaped, cardinal-red flowers with finely cut, fern-like foliage. Prior to planting, carefully nick the hard seed coat and/or soak the seeds overnight. Then, they prefer to be direct-sown after all danger of frost has passed. Or start the seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before planting outside. Carefully thin or transplant Cardinal Climber to a spacing of 6" to 8" apart without disturbing their roots, and plant in full sun and well-draining soil. Water moderately, as Cardinal Climber prefers dry conditions. Only fertilize lightly, as soil that is too rich will discourage flower production. Summer flowering. Height: 10' to 12'.

Shade Tolerance
Cathedral Bells Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:6”
Plant Spacing:8”-12”
Days to Germination:15-21 days
Germination Temperature:65°-70°F

Cobaea scandens. Similar to Morning Glories, this easy-to-grow heirloom is best sown directly outside after all danger of frost has passed. It may also be sown as transplants in a sterile soil mix 4 to 6 weeks before setting outside in the garden after all danger of frost has passed. When large enough to transplant outside, be sure to “harden them off” by gradually exposing the plants to the outdoors over a period of 7 to 10 days. Carefully transplant or thin seedlings to 8" to 12" apart; try to avoid disturbing their root systems. Plant in full sun and moderately rich, well-draining soil. Keep the seedbed well-watered and well-weeded. Cathedral Bells will need a solid support from a trellis, fence or netting, which will be covered with bell-shaped, 4" green flowers that mature to deep violet with whimsical, pea-like tendrils. Summer flowering. Height: 10' to 12'.
Coreopsis Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:12”
Days to Germination:10-25 days
Germination Temperature:55°-70°F

Coreopsis grandiflora, Tickseed. An easy-to-grow perennial (even in poor soil), Coreopsis will produce little, daisy-like flowers amid feathery foliage the first year if started early enough, 8 weeks before transplanting out. But it may be sown outdoors anytime from early spring up until 2 months before the first fall frost. Sow seeds shallowly, pressing them firmly into the soil surface, barely covered, as light is needed for germination. Provide even moisture and strong light during germination. Harden the plants off by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions over 7 to 10 days. Prepare a garden bed in full sunlight with well draining soil. Thin or carefully transplant the seedlings, planting them 12" apart. Coreopis should be kept moderately moist and deadheaded to prolong its flowering period. Summer flowering. Height: 24".
Corn Cockle Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:10”-12”
Days to Germination:7-14 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Agrostemma githago. Easily grown, it should be direct-sown after all danger of spring frost has passed. Corn Cockles may also be started indoors 4 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed-starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture, strong light and air circulation. Prepare a bed in full sunlight with loamy, well-draining soil. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside for a week to 10 days before transplanting out. Thin or transplant to 12" apart. Keep the bed well-weeded and moderately watered until the plants are established. A British cottage garden favorite, it yields abundant 5-petaled, 11⁄2" fuchsia-pink flowers with black-whiskered white centers on fine-haired stems. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.
Cosmos Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:9”-24”
Days to Germination: 5-10 days
Germination Temperature:68°-85°F

Cosmos bipinnatus. A tremendous cut flower, easy-to-grow Cosmos prefers to be direct-sown in the garden after the last frost date. Plant them 1⁄2" deep in well-draining soil with full sun. Keep uniformly moist until the seedlings emerge, about 10 days after sowing. If you must start Cosmos indoors, you may plant them 1⁄2" deep in a good seed-starting medium at 68° to 85°F about 5 to 7 weeks prior to the last frost date. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Once established, thin to the strongest seedlings. Once 3" tall, transplant seedlings 9" to 24" apart in the garden. Quite forgiving, mature Cosmos plants will thrive in infertile or dry soil. Prized for wildflower meadows, their delicate flowers and feathery foliage belong in every heirloom garden. Summer flowering.

Our Pollinators are in Peril

Bee-Loved Romantic Cosmos
Hyssop Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:18”
Days to Germination: 5-20 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Agastache rupestris. Hyssop should be direct-sown after the threat of frost has passed. Sow seeds on top of the soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. It may also be raised as transplants 8 to 10 weeks before the last spring frost date, with even moisture, strong light and air circulation. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors for a week to 10 days. Prepare a bed in full sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Thin or transplant to 18" apart. Transplants should be watered regularly to help establish a mature root system for first-year blooms. Once established, it is drought tolerant. Its compact plants have dozens of sturdy spikes studded with tubular flowers. This valuable cut flower is adored by bees, hummingbirds and butterflies. Summer flowering. Height: 1 1⁄2' to 2'.

Our Pollinators are in Peril
Joseph’s Coat Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:3/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-18”
Days to Germination: 3-10 days
Germination Temperature:60°-80°F

Amaranthus tricolor. Joseph’s Coat’s bushy, whorled stalks of green foliage are topped with hot yellows, reds and cream, looking like nothing short of an exuberant fireworks explosion. And it’s edible! Eat the young leaves raw in salads or steamed or stir-fried. Heat-loving, it can be direct sown outdoors after all danger of frost has passed in warmer areas. In colder areas, it may be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of frost has passed. Sow seeds in seed starting medium with even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. When plants are 4" to 8" tall, thin or transplant 6" to 18" apart. Give the plants full sun and moist soil for the most intense color. Pinching young plants encourages fuller growth. Height: 2' to 3'.
Love Lies Bleeding Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:3/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-18”
Days to Germination: 3-10 days
Germination Temperature:60°-80°F

Amaranthus caudatus. Heat-loving, it can be direct-sown outdoors after all danger of frost has passed in warmer areas. In colder areas, it may be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of frost has passed. Sow seeds in good seed-starting medium with even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Prepare bed in full sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. When plants are 4" to 8" tall, thin or transplant 6" to 18" apart. Love Lies Bleeding has verdant green foliage and luminous fuchsia-garnet flowers composed on long rope-like stems that appear like thick, cascading dreadlocks. Prized in Victorian gardens, this old-fashioned drama queen puts on a big show. Summer flowering. Height: 3' to 5'.
Ornamental Corn Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1”-1 1/2”
Row Spacing:24”-30”
Seed Spacing:3”-4”
Days to Germination:4-14 days
Germination Temperature:60°-80°F

Zea mays. Direct-sow Corn when the soil is reliably warm, above 60°F, well after the last spring frost date. Prepare a well-draining area with rich soil in full sunlight. Amend the soil as necessary with organic fertilizer, compost and/or well-rotted manure. Corn is pollinated by the wind, so grow a minimum of 4 rows, even if they are short rows, to ensure good pollination. If the weather gets wet and cold, you might want to re-seed just to be safe since Corn has a long maturation cycle. After thinning to 10" to 12" between the plants, water regularly and mulch with hay or straw to deter weeds and retain ground moisture. Corn is particularly hungry for nitrogen: feed regularly as needed. Harvest after the husks have dried and the kernals are hardened by giving the ears a sharp downward tug. Peel back the husks and tie them with twine. Hang the ears in a dry, dark area for an additional 1 to 2 weeks. Excessive light during this drying period will fade the Corn’s vibrant colors.
Poppies Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:0”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:15”-18”
Days to Germination:10-15 days
Germination Temperature:55°-65°F

Papaver spp. It is best to direct-sow in rich, very well-draining soil in full to partial sunlight as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring, through the fall for a prolonged blooming season. Lightly cover seeds with soil as light aids germination. Or, start indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed-starting cells to avoid root disturbances. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors. Once the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant 15" to 18" apart. Grown for its seed, its pink, mauve, purple, red or white flowers are an added bonus. To harvest seed for baking or planting, allow the pods to dry on the plants. Remove the whole pods before they split, break the pods open, remove the seeds and store them in an airtight container in a cool, dry spot until use. Late spring flowering.

Our Pollinators are in Peril

Shade Tolerance
Spider Flowers Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”-1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:12”-18”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:70°-80°F

Cleome spinosa, Spider Plant. It is best to plant Cleome seeds directly in the garden after the last frost date. They may also be started indoors in a sterile soil mix, 6 to 8 weeks before planting outside. Cleome needs alternating day and night temperatures. Sow thinly and shallowly as light improves germination. Keep soil evenly moist until seedlings emerge. When seedlings are large enough to transplant, be sure to “harden them off” by gradually exposing the plants to the outdoors over a period of 7 to 10 days. Cleome appreciates full sun but tolerates partial shade; the garden bed should be rich, fertile, well-draining soil. Thin or transplant seedlings to 12" to 18" apart and keep the seedlings well-watered and weeded. Mature plants will tolerate heat and drought conditions.

Shade Tolerance