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  • Growing Season: Perennial
  • Plant Type: Flower

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Gardening Tips

Baby’s Breath Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:18”-24”
Days to Germination:10-15 days
Germination Temperature:55°-70°F

Gypsophila paniculata. Easily grown, this popular cut flower may be sown outdoors from early spring up to 2 months before the first frost date in the fall. Or, start transplants indoors 8 weeks before setting out after the last frost date in the spring to insure first year flowers. Provide even moisture and strong light. When seedlings are 4" tall, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors for 1 to 2 weeks. After the threat of frost has passed, carefully transplant out into well-draining, loamy soil in full to filtered sunlight spaced 18" to 24" apart. Our old-fashioned Baby’s Breath is prized in summer bouquets as a delicate, airy filler with petite white flowers on well-branching, upright foliage. Summer flowering. Height: 3'.
Black-Eyed Susan Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:1”
Plant Spacing:12”-24”
Days to Germination:5-10 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Rudbeckia hirta. This perennial favorite prefers to be started indoors and transplanted out. Eight weeks prior to the last hard frost, sow seeds 1" apart in a good seed-starting medium at 70° to 75°F. Cover lightly and provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Once established, transplant the strongest seedlings to deeper individual pots for superior root development. When the plants are 4" tall, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outdoor conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. After the threat of a hard frost has passed, transplant out into well-draining, loamy soil in full to filtered sunlight. Space plants 12" to 24" apart in the garden. If started early enough in the spring, this popular cut flower may bloom the first year. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.

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Shade Tolerance
Blanket Flower Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:12”
Days to Germination:15-20 days
Germination Temperature:55°-65°F

Gaillardia grandiflora. An easy-to-grow perennial, Blanket Flower will produce showy, 3" to 4", daisy-like flowers the first year if started early enough, 8 weeks before transplanting out. But it may be sown outdoors anytime from spring up until 2 months before the first fall frost. Sow seeds shallowly, pressing them firmly into the soil surface, barely covered, as light is needed for germination. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off transplants by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions over 7 to 10 days. Prepare a garden bed in full sunlight with well-draining soil. Thin or carefully transplant the seedlings to 12" apart. Perfect for containers and butterfly and cutting gardens, Blanket Flower will tolerate heat and drought, but it prefers to be watered moderately and dead-headed to prolong its flowering period. Height: 12".
Blazing Stars Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:20-25 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Liatris spicata. Easily grown, the Prairie Gay Feather should be direct-sown outside from early spring up to 2 months before the first fall frost date. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, extremely well-draining soil. Sow seeds on top of the soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Liatris may also be started indoors 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Provide even moisture, strong light and air circulation. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside for a week to 10 days before transplanting out. Transplants should be watered regularly to help establish a mature root system. Once established, it is drought tolerant. This perennial U.S. wildflower has violet-purple bottlebrush flower spikes. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.

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Blue Flax Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:4”-6”
Plant Spacing:10”-12”
Days to Germination:20-25 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Linum perenne lewisii. Blue Flax should be direct-sown outside as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. Or, as you plant fall flower bulbs, direct-sow it for spring germination. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Sow seeds on top of soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Flax may also be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. Naturalizing Blue Flax is loved for its vivid, cornflower-blue, saucer-shaped flowers. It may bloom the first year if started early enough in the spring. Summer flowering. Height: 12" to 24".
Calamint Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:10”-12”
Days to Germination:14-21 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Calamintha nepeta. Bees and butterflies adore this aromatic, sun-loving, deer-resistant perennial. Broad spikes of tiny tubular flowers smother the trouble-free, gray-green, minty foliage from mid summer to fall. Sow seeds indoors, 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out into the garden. Press the seeds into the soil surface and keep them moist until germination. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then plant them out into the garden, 10" to 12" apart, after all danger of frost has passed, in full sun to partial shade and well draining soil. Calamint is quite drought-tolerant and makes a wonderful edging and rock garden plant. It also blooms the first year from seed! Perennial. Summer to fall blooming. Height: 8" to 10".

Shade Tolerance
Catmint Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:3”-4”
Plant Spacing:15”
Days to Germination:7-10 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Nepeta x faassenii. An herb, aromatic Catmint thrives in full sunlight in well-drained soil. It should be direct-sown into the garden after the last frost date but may also be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after all danger of frost has passed. Provide even moisture and strong light during germination. Harden off the plants by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. Once the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant 15" apart. Catmint may bloom the first year if started early enough in the spring. To encourage a second wave of blooms in lush perennial borders, cut the flower stalks back after the flowers have faded. A prolific grower, it matures into huge bushy plants, which may be divided and transplanted in the spring. Summer flowering. Height: 12" to 24".

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Shade Tolerance
Columbine Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:12”-18”
Days to Germination:21-25 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Aqueligia caerulea. Columbine should be direct sown outside after the threat of frost has passed. Or, as you plant fall flower bulbs, direct sow it for spring germination. Prepare a garden bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Sow seeds on top of soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. It may also be started indoors 8 to 10 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside over 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. Adored by hummingbirds, it may bloom the first year if started early enough in the spring. Summer flowering. Height: 24" to 30".

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Shade Tolerance
Coneflower Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:18”-24”
Days to Germination: 10-20 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Echinacea purpurea. Start Coneflowers indoors before the last frost date to promote first-year blooms. Soak seeds in warm water for 24 hours, and then sow in a good seed-starting medium. Provide 65° to 75°F temperatures and uniformly moist soil until seedlings emerge. Introduce strong sunlight. Once seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant to larger, deeper pots for full root system development. After all danger of frost has passed and seedlings are 4" tall, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days. Transplant out 18" to 24" apart or direct-sow in rich, well-draining soil and full to partial sunlight. Water regularly and mulch to deter weeds and retain ground moisture. Deadhead old flowers to promote continuous blooms. Summer flowering.

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Shade Tolerance
Coreopsis Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:12”
Days to Germination:10-25 days
Germination Temperature:55°-70°F

Coreopsis grandiflora, Tickseed. An easy-to-grow perennial (even in poor soil), Coreopsis will produce little, daisy-like flowers amid feathery foliage the first year if started early enough, 8 weeks before transplanting out. But it may be sown outdoors anytime from early spring up until 2 months before the first fall frost. Sow seeds shallowly, pressing them firmly into the soil surface, barely covered, as light is needed for germination. Provide even moisture and strong light during germination. Harden the plants off by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions over 7 to 10 days. Prepare a garden bed in full sunlight with well draining soil. Thin or carefully transplant the seedlings, planting them 12" apart. Coreopis should be kept moderately moist and deadheaded to prolong its flowering period. Summer flowering. Height: 24".
Dahlia Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:18”-20”
Days to Germination:5-10 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Dahlia variabilis. Dahlias are best started indoors 4 to 6 weeks before transplanting outside after all danger of frost has passed. Sow seeds in good seed-starting medium at 70°F with even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Prepare bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks prior to transplanting outside. Dahlias are moisture-loving plants. Mulch to conserve moisture, water consistently and fertilize as necessary. When the first frost kills the stems and leaves, dig up the tubers and store them in slightly dampened peat moss at 45° to 55°F over the winter. Good cutting flowers, The Collarette Mixture includes white, red, scarlet and yellow Dahlias. Summer flowering. Height: 30" to 39".

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Datura Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”-1/4”
Seed Spacing:3”-4”
Plant Spacing:36”
Days to Germination:21-42 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Datura metel. Start transplants indoors 10 to 12 weeks before setting out at least 2 weeks after the last frost date. To assist germination, soak the seeds for 24 hours in lukewarm water. Plant seeds in sterile starter mix. Cover with plastic wrap until sprouts emerge, then discard plastic. Pamper with 65°-75°F temperatures, good air circulation and even moisture. Once seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant them into larger, deeper pots for full root system development. Two weeks after all danger of frost has passed (minimum 55°F overnight), harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days. Transplant out 36" apart to a well-draining, rich, moist garden bed in full to partial sunlight. Water regularly. Feed as needed with manure tea, kelp or fish emulsion. Poisonous, it should not be ingested. Summer flowering. Height: 24" to 30".
Delphinium Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:1”
Plant Spacing:8”-12”
Days to Germination:14-18 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Delphinium elatum. Delphinium tolerates cold weather and prefers to be direct-sown outdoors as soon as the soil can be worked. Sow 1⁄2" deep in well-draining, loamy soil with full sun. Firm soil well, since they require darkness for optimal germination. Keep uniformly moist until the seedlings emerge, about 2 weeks after sowing. If you must start indoors and transplant out, sow in the early spring in a good seed-starting medium at about 65° to 75°F. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation until they are 3" tall. Prior to transplanting, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. Thin or transplant 8" to 12" apart in the garden. Weed carefully and keep well-watered until established. Their elegant flower spires may require staking or support. Summer flowering. Height: 24" to 30".
False Indigo Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:3”-4”
Plant Spacing:18”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Baptisia australis. Start transplants indoors 2 weeks before the last frost date. Prior to planting, carefully nick the hard seed coat with a file and/or soak the seeds overnight in lukewarm water to assist germination. Pamper with 65°-75°F temperatures, good air circulation and even moisture. Avoid overwatering. Once seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant them into larger, deeper pots for full root system development. After all danger of frost has passed and seedlings are 4" tall, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days. Transplant out 18" apart in rich, well-draining soil and full to partial sunlight. Water regularly. Mulch to deter weeds and retain ground moisture. It will probably not bloom until the second spring. Established, it grows into thick clusters. Early summer flowering. Height: 36" to 48".

Shade Tolerance
Globe Thistle Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Echinops ritro. Easily grown, the Globe Thistle should be direct-sown outside from early spring up to 2 months before the first fall frost date. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, extremely well-draining soil. Sow seeds on top of the soil, barely covering seeds but pressing firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Globe Thistle may also be started indoors 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Provide even moisture, strong light and air circulation. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside for a week to 10 days before transplanting out. Transplants should be watered regularly to help establish a mature root system. Once established, it is drought tolerant. A wonderful border plant, Globe Thistle can be used in both fresh and dried arrangements. Summer flowering. Height: 48".

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Heuchera Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:15-25 days
Germination Temperature:55°F

Heuchera sanguinea, Coral Bells. Heuchera should be direct sown outside after all threat of frost has passed. Prepare a garden bed in full sun to partial shade with rich, well-draining soil. Heuchera may also be started indoors 8 to 10 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of frost has passed. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside over 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting out. When the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant to 12" to 15" apart. A perfect companion for other woodland shade lovers once mature, Heuchera has beautiful foliage and precious little flowers borne on delicate stems. It may bloom the first year if started early enough in the spring. Spring to summer flowering. Height: 15" to 24".

Shade Tolerance
Hibiscus Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:12”-15”
Plant Spacing:24”-30”
Days to Germination:15-30 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Hibiscus mosheutus. Hibiscus can be direct-sown outdoors in warm areas or started indoors 8 to 10 weeks before transplanting outside after the threat of frost has passed. Soak seeds in water: once they sink, they are ready to plant. Sow seeds in good seed-starting medium at 70°F with even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. For consistent moisture during germination, cover the flats or pots with plastic wrap until seedlings emerge: then discard plastic. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting outside. Hibiscus are moisture-loving plants. Mulch to conserve moisture, water consistently and fertilize as necessary. Intolerant of night chills, bring potted plants indoors before a hint of fall frost. Summer flowering. Height: 24" to 36".
Hyssop Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:18”
Days to Germination: 5-20 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Agastache rupestris. Hyssop should be direct-sown after the threat of frost has passed. Sow seeds on top of the soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. It may also be raised as transplants 8 to 10 weeks before the last spring frost date, with even moisture, strong light and air circulation. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors for a week to 10 days. Prepare a bed in full sunlight with rich, well-draining soil. Thin or transplant to 18" apart. Transplants should be watered regularly to help establish a mature root system for first-year blooms. Once established, it is drought tolerant. Its compact plants have dozens of sturdy spikes studded with tubular flowers. This valuable cut flower is adored by bees, hummingbirds and butterflies. Summer flowering. Height: 1 1⁄2' to 2'.

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Lupine Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:4”-6”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:20-25 days
Germination Temperature:55°-70°F

Lupinus polyphyllus. Lupines should be direct sown outside after the threat of frost has passed. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil and protection from wind. Soak the seed for 24 hours in tepid water prior to sowing. It may also be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use peat pots or seed starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside over 1 to 2 weeks. When the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant to 12" to 15" apart. Seedlings may vary in growth or vigor depending on color. Water regularly and mulch to keep roots cool and retain moisture. Lupines will bloom the second season. Spring to early summer flowering. Height: 36" to 48".

Shade Tolerance
Maltese Cross Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:21-25 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Lychnis chalcedonica. Butterflies, hummingbirds, and gardeners all love this old-fashioned, easy-to grow, deer-resistant perennial. Its bright scarlet orange flowers, borne in dense clusters atop tall stems, positively glow in full-sun plantings. Sow seeds indoors in spring, 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost. Barely cover the seeds with soil, since they require light to germinate, and then keep them moist until germination. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then transplant up to 15" apart after all danger of frost has passed. Maltese Cross prefers consistently moist soil once transplanted outdoors. It’s an excellent cut flower, and cutting and deadheading will prolong its bloom period. Perennial. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.When the blooms begins to fade, cut the plant back to encourage new growth.

Shade Tolerance
Poppies Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:0”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:15”-18”
Days to Germination:10-15 days
Germination Temperature:55°-65°F

Papaver spp. It is best to direct-sow in rich, very well-draining soil in full to partial sunlight as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring, through the fall for a prolonged blooming season. Lightly cover seeds with soil as light aids germination. Or, start indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of frost has passed. Use individual peat pots or seed-starting cells to avoid root disturbances. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors. Once the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant 15" to 18" apart. Grown for its seed, its pink, mauve, purple, red or white flowers are an added bonus. To harvest seed for baking or planting, allow the pods to dry on the plants. Remove the whole pods before they split, break the pods open, remove the seeds and store them in an airtight container in a cool, dry spot until use. Late spring flowering.

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Shade Tolerance
Red Hot Poker Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:18”-24”
Days to Germination:10-20 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Kniphofia uvaria. A.K.A. Tritoma or Torch Lilies, Red Hot Pokers love sun and heat, and are perfect for that baking area beyond the reach of your water hose. Moisten seeds and then store them, wrapped in plastic, in a cold place for 4 weeks before sowing them indoors, 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost date. Keep the seeds moist until germination. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then transplant them after the last frost date to 12” apart in full sun and well-draining soil. If the hummingbird-beloved flowers are allowed to mature, the songbirds will make a meal of the seeds, though the seeds that elude them may sprout where they fall next spring. The tough, grassy foliage is evergreen but may get a bit battered in winter. Remove tattered leaves in spring.
Shasta Daisy Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:0”
Seed Spacing:1”
Plant Spacing:12”-24”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:70°-75°F

Leucanthemum x superbum. This easily grown perennial cut flower may be sown outdoors from early spring up to 2 months before the first frost date in the fall. Or start transplants indoors 8 weeks before setting out after the last spring frost date to ensure first-year flowers. Sow seeds on top of the soil, leaving the seeds uncovered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Provide even moisture and strong light. When seedlings are 4" tall, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors for 1 to 2 weeks. After the threat of frost has passed, carefully transplant out into well-draining, loamy soil in full to filtered sunlight spaced 12" to 24" apart. Prized in summer bouquets and wildflower drifts, it has large, bright white flowers with beaming yellow centers. Summer flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.