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Gardening Tips

Immortelle Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:10”
Days to Germination: 10-15 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Xeranthemum annuum. Sow Immortelle seeds outdoors after all danger of frost has passed, covering the seeds with 1⁄4" of soil, or sow indoors in individual pots, 6-8 weeks before the last frost date. Keep the seeds moist until germination. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then transplant them after the last frost date to 10" apart in full sun and rich, well-draining soil. Immortelle seedlings resent transplanting. Handle the seedlings gently, disturbing the roots as little as possible. A dream in dried flower arrangements, Immortelle is an excellent everlasting. To dry flowers, harvest them just as they begin to open to retain their colors and hang them upside down in a dry, shady area for at least 2 weeks. Annual. Mid- to late summer flowering. Height: 12" to 20".
Johnny Jump-Ups Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:1”
Plant Spacing:5”-8”
Days to Germination:10-20 days
Germination Temperature:70°F

Viola tricolor. This heirloom favorite prefers to be started indoors and transplanted out. Ten to 12 weeks prior to the last hard frost, plant them in a good seed-starting medium at about 70°F. Cover the seeds well and firm them down, since they require darkness for optimal germination. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Once established, thin plants to 2" to 3" apart and grow on at about 55°F. Prior to transplanting when 3" tall, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. After the threat of a hard frost has passed, transplant out into fertile, evenly moist but well-draining soil in full to filtered sunlight. Space plants 5" to 8" apart in the garden. Their flowers are prized as candied garnishes, in summer salads or in ice cubes. Spring/summer flowering. Height: 12".

Shade Tolerance
Kiss Me Over the Garden Gate Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:18”
Days to Germination:14-18 days
Germination Temperature:65°-70°F

Polygonum orientale. Kiss Me Over the Garden Gate requires a cold period to germinate reliably. Direct-sow in late fall or late winter for spring seedlings, or wrap the seeds in a moist paper towel, place them in a plastic baggie, and refrigerate them for 3-4 weeks in spring before either starting indoors or direct-sowing after the last frost date. If starting indoors, sow cold-treated seeds 1⁄8" deep in good seed-starting medium 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost date. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Once established, thin to the strongest seedlings. Transplant carefully to minimize root disturbance. Once 3" tall, thin or transplant seedlings 2' to 3' apart in the garden. A moderate self-seeder, you'll likely find seedlings here and there the second year. Summer flowering. Height: 4' to 7'.

Our Pollinators are in Peril
Lupine Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”
Seed Spacing:4”-6”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:20-25 days
Germination Temperature:55°-70°F

Lupinus polyphyllus. Lupines should be direct sown outside after the threat of frost has passed. Prepare a bed in full to partial sunlight with rich, well-draining soil and protection from wind. Soak the seed for 24 hours in tepid water prior to sowing. It may also be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting out after the threat of spring frost has passed. Use peat pots or seed starting cells to avoid root disturbance. Provide even moisture and strong light. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them outside over 1 to 2 weeks. When the seedlings are 2" tall, thin or transplant to 12" to 15" apart. Seedlings may vary in growth or vigor depending on color. Water regularly and mulch to keep roots cool and retain moisture. Lupines will bloom the second season. Spring to early summer flowering. Height: 36" to 48".

Shade Tolerance
Money Plant Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:12”
Days to Germination: 10-14 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Lunaria annua. When Money Plant’s pink flowers go to seed, the seed pods are flattened and the size and shape of a silver dollar, and are wonderful in dried flower arrangements. Sow seeds outdoors in full sun or partial shade, in either fall or early spring. Cover them lightly with soil and keep them evenly moist until germination. Thin seedlings to 12" apart. Provide even moisture throughout the season. The plants prefer full sun in cooler climates, while they benefit from afternoon shade in warmer climates. They will produce only foliage the first year and flowers and seeds the second year before dying. The plants, if left uncut, will usually self-seed. To dry for arrangements, cut entire stems just as the seed pods lose their color, and hang upside down in a dark, dry place. When dry, gently remove the outer coverings to reveal the “silver dollars” inside. Biennial. Spring flowering. Height: 2' to 3'.

Shade Tolerance
Moonflower Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-8”
Days to Germination:5-10 days
Germination Temperature:65°-85°F

Ipomoea alba. A spectacular climbing annual, this old-fashioned favorite will scramble up supportive structures for beautiful nighttime floral displays until the first fall frost. Prior to planting, carefully nick the hard seed coat and/or soak the seeds overnight. Then, direct-sow them where they are to grow after all danger of frost is past. Or start the seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before planting outside. Carefully thin or transplant Moonflowers to a spacing of 6" to 8" apart without disturbing their roots, and plant in full sun and well-draining soil. Water moderately, as Moonflowers prefer dry conditions. Only fertilize lightly, as soil that is too rich will discourage flower production. Moonflowers require a trellis, fence, string, lamppost or mailbox post to support their long, climbing vines and profuse flowers. Summer flowering. Height: 10' to 12'.
Morning Glory Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-8”
Days to Germination:5-10 days
Germination Temperature:65°-85°F

Ipomoea. A spectacular climbing annual, this old-fashioned favorite will scramble up any type of supportive structure for a beautiful floral display until the first frost in the fall. Prior to planting, carefully nick the hard seed coat and/or soak the seeds overnight. Then, direct-sow them where they are to grow after all danger of frost is past. Or, start the seeds indoors 4 to 6 weeks before planting outside. Carefully thin or transplant Morning Glories to a spacing of 6" to 8" apart without disturbing their roots, and plant in full sun and well-draining soil. Water moderately, as Morning Glories prefer dry conditions. Only fertilize lightly, as soil that is too rich will discourage flower production. Morning Glories require a trellis, fence, string, lamppost or mailbox post to support their long, climbing vines and profuse flowers. Summer flowering. Height: 6' to 12'.

Days of Vines and Roses
If you’re looking for a great trellis on which to grow an annual vine, consider a sturdy, well-established climbing rose. The thorny canes provide excellent support, and won’t mind a little competition. Since the vines will come into their glory later in the season, they’ll add color to a rose that has finished its main flush of bloom. But any overlap will produce handsome combinations as well: Hyacinth Bean or Sweet Peas with a pale pink New Dawn rose, or blue Morning Glories with your favorite yellow-flowered climber.
Nasturtium Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:8”-12”
Days to Germination:7-14 days
Germination Temperature:65°-70°F

Tropaeolum majus. Easy to grow in full to filtered sunlight, it is best to direct-sow in well-draining, loamy soil after the last frost. Plant 1" deep, since they require darkness for optimal germination. Keep uniformly moist until the seedlings emerge, about 10 days after sowing. Weed and keep well-watered until established. Or, start indoors 5 weeks before the last frost date. Sow in a good seed-starting mix at 65° to 70°F. Provide even moisture, strong light and good ventilation. Prior to transplanting, acclimate the seedlings by gradually exposing them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks. Thin or transplant the seedlings 8" to 12" apart in the garden. Drought-tolerant, water moderately once established. They flower best with cooler nights. Summer flowering. Dwarf varieties: 12" to 18" tall. Taller varieties: 5' to 8' tall.

The Eminently Edible Nasturtiums
Nicotiana Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”-1/4”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:12”-24”
Days to Germination:7-21 days
Germination Temperature:70°-80°F

Nicotiana. This old-fashioned favorite is best started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost date in the spring. Sow shallowly since light aids germination. Pamper with 70°-80°F temperatures, strong light, good air circulation and moist soil by covering flats or pots with plastic wrap. Remove plastic wrap once the sprouts emerge. Once seedlings are large enough to handle, transplant to larger, deeper pots for full root system development. After all danger of frost has passed, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days. Transplant out in rich, well-draining soil and full to partial sunlight. Water regularly and mulch to deter weeds and retain ground moisture. An heirloom favorite, Nicotiana is a tall, elegant plant graced with long, tubular white flowers with an intoxicating fragrance. It may even self-sow! Summer flowering.

Shade Tolerance
Nigella Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:6”-8”
Plant Spacing:12”-15”
Days to Germination:10-15 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Nigella damascena. aka Love-in-a-Mist, it is best direct-sown in the garden, although it may be started indoors 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting outside after the danger of hard frost has passed. Prepare a bed with rich, well-draining soil in a sunny spot. Sow seeds on top of the soil, leaving the seeds barely covered but pressed firmly onto the soil surface, as light aids germination. Use individual peat pots or seed-starting cells to avoid root disturbances. Provide even moisture and strong light during germination. Harden off the seedlings by gradually acclimating them to outside conditions for 1 to 2 weeks before transplanting or potting outside. Once the plants are 2" tall, thin them to 10" apart. If transplanting, be gentle! A prolific annual, rose, white, indigo and sky-blue Nigella self-sows readily. Summer flowering. Height: 12" to 24".
Night Phlox Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/8”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:6”-12”
Days to Germination:7-14 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Zaluzianskya capensis. Night Phlox is what dreams are made of. As the sun goes down, its tiny burgundy buds begin to open until they reveal masses of starry white blooms that glow in the moonlight. But it’s their fragrance that really rules the night. Sweet and intoxicating, it floats on the breeze, making one think of honey and freshly baked vanilla cake. The scent intensifies with the darkness until, near midnight, you’ll be swooning. Seeds can be sown directly into the garden after the last frost date, or indoors 3 to 4 weeks earlier. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil and keep them moist until germination. Once all danger of frost has passed, harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then transplant them to 12" apart in full sun and consistently moist, well-drained soil. Annual. Summer flowering. Height: 12".
Ornamental Millet Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/2”-1”
Seed Spacing:1”
Plant Spacing:24”
Days to Germination:10-14 days
Germination Temperature:65°-75°F

Pennisetum glaucum. Use this bold ornamental grass to add serious oomph to your hot, sunny borders and containers. Seeds are best direct-sown in spring after the last frost date. Sow the seeds up to 1" deep and keep them moist until germination. Thin clumps to 24" apart. If starting indoors, sow clumps into individual pots 6 to 8 weeks before the last frost date. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then transplant them to at least 24" apart in full sun and well-draining soil after all danger of frost has passed. The deep burgundy to almost-black blades grow robustly, quickly forming a hefty mass of easy-care drama. In midsummer it shoots forth fat, fuzzy flower spikes in the same shade as the foliage, yet flecked with pale gold. Annual. Summer flowering. Height: 3' to 5'.
Runner Bean Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1”
Row Spacing:18”-36”
Plant Spacing:3”-4”
Days to Germination:6-10 days
Germination Temperature:60°-80°F

Phaseolus coccineus. Floriferous Runner Beans love sun and well-draining, fertile soil. Plant Runner Beans when the soil has warmed to 60°F and all danger of frost has passed. Amend soil as needed with organic fertilizer, compost and/or well-aged manure. Cool wet weather may necessitate a second planting: Runner Bean seeds rot in cold, damp soil. After planting, do not water until the sprouts emerge, unless it is very hot and dry. After emergence, and throughout the season, avoid watering the foliage. Water as needed by soaking the soil around the base of the plant and fertilize with fish or kelp emulsion as needed. Provide Runner Beans with a supportive structure on which to grow, such as a fence, rough poles, teepees, netting or a trellis. A prized heirloom, its gorgeous, pendulous flowers appear in tiers of salmon-scarlet and white against rich, blue-green foliage. Continuously remove the delicious edible pods well under 7" long in order to keep flower production at a maximum.
Soapwort Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/16”
Seed Spacing:1”-2”
Plant Spacing:18”
Days to Germination:14-18 days
Germination Temperature:65°-70°F

Saponaria vaccaria. Sow Soapwort seeds outdoors in spring after the last frost date, barely covering them with soil. Keep the seed bed moist. To sow indoors, wrap the seeds in a moist paper towel and a plastic bag and chill them for 4 weeks before sowing them on the surface of a fine seed starting mix, firmly pressing them into the soil. The seeds need light to germinate. Harden off the seedlings by slowly introducing them to the outdoors over the span of a week, and then thin or transplant trios of seedlings to 18" apart in full sun and moist, fertile, well-drained soil after all danger of frost has passed. Water Soapwort regularly. The plant readily self-seeds if happy, and will pop up here and there next season, creating wonderfully unexpected vignettes. Annual. Late spring and summer flowering. Height: 12" to 24".
Sweet Peas Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1”
Seed Spacing:2”-3”
Plant Spacing:6”-8”
Days to Germination:10-21 days
Germination Temperature:55°-65°F

Lathyrus odoratus. Wonderfully scented, Sweet Peas prefer cool, moist growing conditions. Soak the seeds for 24 to 48 hours before planting. Sow in well-draining soil that is fertile and rich in organic matter as soon as the ground can be worked in the spring. Work in compost and/or well-rotted manure as needed. They can also be started indoors 4 to 6 weeks before transplanting outside. In areas with milder winters, Sweet Peas may also be started in the late fall for early spring blossoms. Once the seedlings reach 2" tall, thin to a spacing of 6" to 8" apart. Water well and mulch to keep roots cool and moist. Sweet Peas will need a solid support from a trellis, fence or netting to support their vines and profuse flowers. Cut the flowers often for sweet bouquets and keep up with dead-heading to increase flower production.

Days of Vines and Roses
If you’re looking for a great trellis on which to grow an annual vine, consider a sturdy, well-established climbing rose. The thorny canes provide excellent support, and won’t mind a little competition. Since the vines will come into their glory later in the season, they’ll add color to a rose that has finished its main flush of bloom. But any overlap will produce handsome combinations as well: Hyacinth Bean or Sweet Peas with a pale pink New Dawn rose, or blue Morning Glories with your favorite yellow-flowered climber.
Tree Mallow Sowing Instructions
Planting Depth
:1/4”-1/2”
Seed Spacing:5”-6”
Plant Spacing:18”-24”
Days to Germination: 7-20 days
Germination Temperature:60°-70°F

Lavatera trimestris. A Mediterranean heirloom, it can be grown almost anywhere, although it prefers cooler, moist summers. Sensitive to root disturbance, it is best sown directly in the garden after all danger of frost has passed. Direct-sow 1⁄4" to 1⁄2" deep in rich, fertile and well-draining soil and full sun. Tamp down and keep the seedbed moist until seedlings emerge. If your season is short, you can start it indoors in peat pots 6 to 8 weeks before transplanting. When seedlings are 4" tall, harden them off by gradually acclimating them to the outdoors over 7 to 10 days. Thin plants to 18" to 24" apart. Provide consistent moisture. A long-lasting cut flower in white, silver, pink, pink with deep rose veins or mixed, Lavatera produces abundant trumpet-shaped, satiny blooms on long stems. Summer flowering. Height: 24" to 36".